p.47, THE STACK, by Benjamin Bratton.

Platform criteria #1:
"As opposed to other macrogovernance institutions, platforms do not work according to detailed premeditated master plans; rather they set the stage for actions to unfold through ordered emergence. Bureaucracies, by contrast, are systems that are also dependant on strict protocols and interfaces, but they operate by premodeling desired outcomes and then working backwards to codify interactions that would guarantee these: means are a function of ends. Platforms begin by fixing equally strict means but are strategically agnostic as to outcomes: ends are a function of means."